Of course, this is just what we’re directly working on ourselves. Etc. What’s ultimately the point of peer review? There are two basic points. We’ve also already helped several people get started on projects that use their expertise—in physics, mathematics or computer science—and it’s wonderful to see the beginning of this kind of “scaling up”. Started by Physicist-Computer Scientist-Entrepreneur Stephen Wolfram, the project envisions the Universe as one big network. The first, that we actually discussed a bit even the week before the Physics Project was launched, has to do with digital contact tracing in the context of the current pandemic. Here’s a toy version of it, that we discussed in a livestream last week: Edges in one direction (say, down) correspond to time. Either way, I suspect there’s going to be somewhat sophisticated math involved. It’s been possible for a long time to make “aggregated” models of biological evolution, where one’s looking at total numbers of organisms of some particular type (with essentially the direct analog of differential-equation-based aggregated epidemiological models). Look at 2×2×2… grid graphs. But what we observe depends on measurements that sample collections of branches determined by the quantum observation frames we choose. We’ll see. It’s mathematically complicated—because it must describe the combined geometry of physical and branchial space. But there’s undoubtedly a solution to this, and we’re hoping someone will figure it out, say using our Wolfram Language computational geometry capabilities. Well, the answer is “Yes!”. And the first big place where it seems the models can be applied is in distributed computing. But the robust way in which one seems to be able to reason in terms of natural selection suggests to me that—like in physics—there’s some layer of computational reducibility, and one just has to find the right concepts to be able to develop a more general theory on the basis of it. Get involved in real-time research via livestream, through the Fundamental Physics track at Wolfram Summer School and through peer review. It’s just that this is a lot of sequences. I have to mention one more issue that’s been bugging me since 1979. Our models, however, finally provide a definite suggestion for what is “underneath” quantum mechanics—and from our models we’ve already been able to derive many of the most prominent phenomena in quantum mechanics. Among other things, what we’re hoping is that people will say what they can “certify” and what they cannot: “I understand this, but don’t have anything to say about that”. (Stay tuned for future livestreamed working sessions!) (Like in standard numerical analysis, though, different rules may have different efficiency and show different pathologies.). A core question in theoretical computing science (which I have views on, but won’t discuss here) is whether P=NP, that is, whether all NP problems can actually be done in polynomial time. An extreme case of this arises in evaluating S, K combinators. Instantly share code, notes, and snippets. And it’s working. Instead, for something like an electron, it takes a rotation through 720°. But independent of nailing down precisely what’s ultimately underneath quantum field theory it seems like the very structure of our models has a good chance of being very helpful just in dealing in practice with quantum field theory as we already know it. Our livestreams—even very technical ones—have been exceptionally popular. So, first, what’s the usual concept of angular momentum in physics? So maybe we’ll be able, for example, just to look at a multiway system generated by a string substitution system, and already be able to see something like interference fringes in an idealized double-slit experiment. There’s a lot to do in the project, and with the project. And I’m fully expecting that there’ll be projects at the Summer School that lead, for example, to academic papers that rapidly become classics. It so happens that Jonathan Gorard’s “day job” has centered around numerical relativity, so he was particularly keen to give this a try. And indeed what’s got me excited is that I think there’s going to be a very fruitful interplay between these areas. But the graph of what phones were close to what phones can be thought of as being like a causal graph. And we’ve started livestreaming our actual working research sessions. Since announcing the program last week, we’ve already received many good applications… but we’re going to try to expand the program to accommodate everyone who makes sense. But at the end, there’s always the issue of finding which path or paths have the answer you want: and in effect you have to arrange your measurement to just pick out these paths. And in fact—until a few months ago—that’s exactly how I expected things would go with our Physics Project. I never expected our whole project to develop as well—or as quickly—as it has. For new academic publications, see the Wolfram Physics Project.. 1975 What is distributed computing? But we need to see just how this works, and how far we can get, say in reproducing the features of the harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics. There are details to clean up, and further to go. In principle, this 3D geometry should let one immediately 3D print “universes”. The way I know I really understand something is when I can explain it absolutely from the ground up. And in general relativity (say for simulating a black hole merger) it’s usually a very subtle business, in which the details of the discretization are hard to keep track of, and hard to keep consistent. But in our models there’s a way of avoiding this and directly getting a discrete structure that can be used for simulation: just look at the spacetime causal graph. And that ideas from physics in the context of our models are going to give one new ways to think about distributed computing. We already did one livestreamed working session about it (with Taliesin Beynon as a guest); we’ll be doing more. Watch an introduction to the Wolfram Demonstrations Project, a free resource that uses dynamic computation to illuminate concepts in science, technology, mathematics, art, finance, and a range of other fields. When I used to publish academic papers in the 1970s and early 1980s I quickly discovered something disappointing about actual peer review—that closely mirrors what my historian-of-science friend said. And send us updates about what you’re doing in connection with the Wolfram Physics Project, so we can post about it. Review of Mathematica in Theoretical Physics by Gerd Baumann and Matematika es Mathematica by Laszlo Szili and Janos Toth. Understanding the Second Law of thermodynamics was one of the things that first got me interested in fundamental physics, nearly 50 years ago. And in a sense the understanding is at an even more fundamental level than our models: it’s generic to the whole idea of computational models that follow the Principle of Computational Equivalence and exhibit computational irreducibility. Composite image made by NASA’s Hubble, Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes.Image: NASAStephen Wolfram, computer scientist, physicist, and CEO of software company Wolfram Research (behind Wolfram Alpha and Mathematica) made headlines this week when he launched the Wolfram Physics Project. We launched the Wolfram Physics Project two weeks ago, on April 14. And we’re starting to see serious “public collaboration” happening, in real time. Well, this setup immediately seems a lot more like the situation we have in our models—or in physics—where different updates can happen in any order, subject only to following the causal relationships defined by the causal graph. There are also problems (like factoring numbers) that are in the class NP, meaning that if you were to “non-deterministically” guess the answer, you could check it in polynomial time. Beyond general relativity, what about quantum field theory? But now there start to be interesting analogies between the distributed computing case and physics. And … And that’s a reasonable thing to want. But after that, do you just keep “drilling down” the evaluation of f[9] in a “depth-first way”, until it gets to 1s, or do you for example notice that you get f[8]+f[7]+f[8], and then collect the f[8]s and evaluate them only once? But right now what’s most important to me is what a tremendous pleasure it is to share all this with such a broad spectrum of people. Who’s friends with whom. But what I did instead was to start with an idealized model of discrete molecules—and then to simulate lots of these molecules. But basically it’ll be a framework for looking at a given program in different ways, and using different foliations to understand and describe what it’s supposed to do. My first instinct—as in the case of the double-slit experiment—was to think that studying bound states in our models would be very complicated. I was hoping I could submit my paper to some academic journal and then leave it to the journal to just “run the peer-review process”. But the qualitative picture of a quantum computer is that instead it’s simultaneously following many paths of evolution, so that in effect it can do many Turing-machine-like computations in parallel. Although I’m happy to say that in the case of our project it seems like there are actually a very good number of scientists who are enthusiastically making the effort to understand what we’ve done. Strictly speaking, the Wolfram Physics project isn’t science and is merely a collection of ideas (with a lot of marketing). The idea is to have an open process, where people comment on our papers, and all relevant comments and comments-on-comments, etc. They’re enjoying understanding what we’ve figured out. One might think that the laws of physics would be invariant under any of these transformations. (I will say that ever since the work I did with Richard Feynman on quantum computing back in the early 1980s, I have always wanted to really understand the “cost of measurement”, and I’m hoping that we’ll finally be able to do that now.). The Wolfram Physics Project follows the same concept. They’re appreciating the elegance of it. I have a suspicion that the quantization is going to come from something essentially topological. T and P then have simple interpretations: they correspond to reversing time edges and space edges, respectively. In our models, of course, discretization is not something “imposed after the fact”, but rather something completely intrinsic to the model. Maybe there’s some way of thinking about the genotype-phenotype correspondence in terms of the correspondence between multiway graphs and causal graphs. Most likely there’ll need to be some other layer or variation on the models to make them work. (So if you’re thinking of applying, please just apply… though do it as soon as you can!). The most straightforward are inertial frames. We talked a bit about blockchains—but it seemed like there were richer analogs in hashgraphs and things like NKN and IOTA. After all, at some level, bound states are a limiting idealization, and even in quantum field theory (or with quantum mechanics formulated in terms of path integrals) they’re already a complicated concept. But one of the many surprises has been that quantum phenomena seem much more robust than I expected—and it seems possible to reproduce their essential features without putting all the details in. So in the last couple of weeks I’ve been surprised to see so many people asking us whether we’ve managed to understand the Second Law. So, thank you! Stephen and Jonathan might want to check this out as a substitute for the VR display…, https://www.linkedin.com/feed/update/urn:li:activity:6687948109819072512/, Our Mission and the Opportunity of Artifacts from the Future, Faster than Light in Our Model of Physics: Some Preliminary Thoughts, A Burst of Physics Progress at the 2020 Wolfram Summer School, Exploring Rulial Space: The Case of Turing Machines, Launching Version 12.2 of Wolfram Language & Mathematica: 228 New Functions and Much More…, Where Did Combinators Come From? And of course there’s an open archive both of the livestream itself, and the notebook created in it. We don’t yet know how this works in our models. But in fact, each of C, P and T invariance is violated somewhere in particle physics (and this fact was a favorite of mine back when I did particle physics for a living). One challenge about open post-publication peer review is who will review the reviewers. Worlfram main ("448-page technical exposition"): https://www.wolframphysics.org/technical-introduction/introduction/, + https://www.wolframphysics.org/technical-introduction/limiting-behavior-and-emergent-geometry/recognizable-geometry/, See "Universes": https://www.wolframphysics.org/universes/, https://www.wolframphysics.org/questions/general/, https://www.wolframphysics.org/technical-introduction/typical-behaviors/the-number-of-possible-rules/. But this was our first real “aha” moment in a public working session. New conclusions. It’s the right basic idea, but there’s a lot missing from the toy version, which isn’t surprising, not least because it’s based on a simple string substitution system, and not even a hypergraph. Our Summer School—which has been running since 2003—is a 3-week program, focused on every participant doing a unique, original project. Maybe different sequences of “environments” correspond to different foliations, sampling different parts of the possible sequence of genetic variations. But what about one that just keeps “evolving” as you try to evaluate it? We imagined filling in the plane by making something like a string figure that joins points on the two vectors: But now there’s an easy generalization to the hypergraph. Then it’s up to us to answer, and hopefully before long consensus will be reached. We haven’t tried it yet (and someone should!). So we started wondering whether somehow this could be used in practice to set up simulations. But it’s getting closer…. There is a pernicious effect here that Wolfram is taking advantage of. But in quantum mechanics that’s not how things work. In Q&A sessions that we’ve done, and messages that we’ve received, there’ve been many requests to reproduce a classic quantum result: interference in the double-slit experiment. And C is charge conjugation: turning particles (like electrons) into antiparticles (like positrons). Or they can be turned into stickers or T-shirt designs (or put on mouse pads, if people other than me still use those). It took us a little while to untangle this, but in the end it’s very simple. There’s a lot in our Physics Project. We talked about things like Git, where merge conflicts are like violations of causal invariances. But in our models its properties have to be emergent, and it’ll be interesting to see just how “close to the foundations” or how generic their derivation will be able to be. Imagine we’ve defined a Fibonacci recursion: Now imagine you enter f[10]. A historian of science I’ve known for a long time responded: Please remember as you go forward that, many protestations to the contrary, most scientists hate originality, which feels strange, uncomfortable, and baffling. We’ve done detailed technical sessions. But we’ve been very keen to go on working on the science, and some of that has been happening too. New methods. This is super interesting to me. The Wolfram Physics Project is a bold effort to use breakthrough new ideas and the latest in physics, mathematics and computation to find the fundamental theory of physics, ... Start your review of A Project to Find the Fundamental Theory of Physics. Course Assistant Apps » An app for every course— right in the palm of your hand. The Wolfram project is the latest attempt by some of the smartest members of humanity to find a theory of everything. But I have to say that I thought people had (unfortunately) by now rather lost interest in it, and it had just become one of those things that everyone implicitly assumes is true, even though if pressed they’re not quite sure why. I’m looking forward to seeing what the next few weeks bring. I would have thought that first we’d have to understand exactly what particles are, and then we’d only slowly be able to build up something we could consider a realistic “double slit”. Here’s what we’ve come up with. They want to support the project. It’s very exciting to be seeing all this activity around our Physics Project, after only two weeks. When we launched the project two weeks ago, I sent mail to a number of people. I wanted this project to be something for the world—and something lots of people could participate in. (Thanks, by the way, to those who’ve already pointed out typos and other mistakes; much appreciated, and hopefully now all fixed.). The blog post announcing the project … Already we’ve thought about two other—completely different—potential applications. We’re already used to the idea (at least in the Wolfram Language) that we can write a program functionally, procedurally, declaratively, etc. And how do our black holes generate things like Hawking radiation? We’re trying—albeit imperfectly—to get the best aspects of peer review, and to do it as quickly as possible. But actually, it seems as if it may be possible to capture the essence of what’s going on in bound states with even very simple toy examples in our models—in which for instance there are just cycles in the multiway graph. This year’s Summer School will (for the first time) be online (though synchronous), so it’s going to be easier for students from around the world to attend. No (classical) computer system can actually do this for any N. So you would need an infinite system. And to help with that, we’ve got an educational program coming up: we’ve added a Fundamental Physics track to our annual Wolfram Summer School. Consider the multiway causal graph. I thought I managed to get decently far, talking about general relativity, and even quantum mechanics, all, I hope, without relying on more than extremely everyday knowledge. On the livestream, we used the simple example: And in the act of transforming one of these vectors into the other we’re essentially sweeping out a plane. But we’ll see. How should you evaluate this? // One way to imagine doing an NP problem in polynomial time is not to use an ordinary Turing machine, but instead to use a “non-deterministic Turing machine” in which there is a tree of possible paths where one can pick any path to follow. Well, in our approach to physics the way we handle this is to think in terms of foliations and reference frames—which provide a way to organize and understand what’s going on. But fortunately, many of the questions have been the same. These are things I’ve long wanted to clarify, and I’m hoping we’ll look at these things soon. But maybe we’ll need some completely different idea. OK, so here’s something concrete that came out of our working session last Thursday: I think we understand what angular momentum is. The physics project lays out the theories of … It’s tremendously encouraging—and motivating. Essentially it’s about having a whole collection of computing elements that are communicating with others to collectively perform a computation. Quantum mechanics is notorious for yielding strange phenomena that can be computed within its formalism, but which seem essentially impossible to account for in any other way. having time run in reverse. How to submit a review. And over the past couple of weeks we’ve started to think about what this really means. But how should it actually work? Hold fast. But to understand Hawking radiation we’re undoubtedly also going to have to look at multiway causal graphs. And as I write this, I have a new idea—of trying to see how relativistic wave equations (like the Klein–Gordon equation for spin-0 particles or the Dirac equation for spin-1/2 particles) might arise from thinking about bundles of geodesics in the multiway causal graph. "The Wolfram Physics Project" calls on scientists of all disciplines to contribute. What is CPT invariance? A free inside look at company reviews and salaries posted anonymously by employees. Stephen Wolfram (/ ˈ w ʊ l f r əm /; born 29 August 1959) is a British-American computer scientist, physicist, and businessman. For the last several years, we’ve been developing a framework for quantum computing in the Wolfram Language (which we’re hoping to release soon). I haven’t published an ordinary academic paper since 1986, but I was rather excited two weeks ago to upload my first-ever paper to arXiv. I expect so—and I wouldn’t be surprised if it’s very useful in giving us a way to organize our thinking and our programs. But for me it’s been particularly wonderful to see so many other people engaging with the project. But here’s something from physics: our universe (fortunately!) After all, our models were constructed to be as minimal and structureless as possible. Dimension? And, more than that, even supposedly point particles—like electrons—have nonzero quantized spin angular momentum. It’s probably going to be more structured and more parametrized than these different traditional styles of programming. If you’re looking at, say, fluid flow near a vortex, then when you go around a small circle adding up the flow at every point, you’ll get zero if the circle doesn’t include the center of the vortex, and some quantized value if it does (the value will be directly proportional to the number of times you wind around the vortex). Science is usually done behind closed doors. Follow the Project on Twitter Latest news, updates and announcements. Even though S, K combinators are 100 years old this year, they remain extremely hard to systematically wrap one’s head around. We’ve had lots of physicists, mathematicians, computer scientists and others asking questions, making suggestions and offering help. C is a little less clear, but we suspect that it just corresponds to reversing branchial edges (and this very correspondence probably tells us something about the nature of antiparticles). So can one do something similar with general relativity? But—as I explained in my announcement—that’s not how it worked out. ), OK, so how about angular momentum? Instead, it’s just circulating around, creating a vortex. But in our models, we potentially get the actual path integral as a limit of the behavior of geodesics in a multiway graph. So over the past week we’ve been thinking about additional, faster things we can do (and, yes, we’ve also been talking to people to get “peer reviews” of possible peer-review processes, and even going to another meta level). And indeed many modern distributed computing systems are again “just running” without getting to “final results” (think: the internet, or a blockchain). And I was very pleased that by the 1990s I thought I finally understood how the Second Law works: basically it’s a consequence of computational irreducibility, and the fact that even if the underlying rules for a system are reversible, they can still so “encrypt” information about the initial conditions that no computationally limited observer can expect to recover it. It’s fine when one manages to get a combinator expression that can successfully be evaluated (through some path) to a fixed point. Because, to my great surprise, once we started seriously working on the ideas I originally hatched 30 years ago we suddenly discovered that we could make dramatic progress. We need some kind of “calculus of reference frames” in terms of which we can define good distributed computing primitives. Stephen Wolfram recently announced his new Physics Project, an attempt to rethink how we do physics in terms of simple operations on abstract structures. And in particular, it’s hard to imagine that in the normal course of peer reviewing there could be serious traditional peer review on a 450-page document like this that would get done in less than several years. (Image credit: Wolfram Physics Project) Physicist Stephen Wolfram thinks he's figured out a framework that … On the livestream, we started relating this to the tensor Jμν which defines relativistic angular momentum (the two indices of Jμν basically correspond to our two geodesics). And as I write this, I can’t help noticing that it’s rather closely related to work we’ve done on validating facts for computable contracts, as well as to the ideas that came up in my testimony last summer for the US Senate about “ranking providers” for automated content selection on the internet. In ordinary Turing machines, there are problems (like multiplying numbers) that are in the class P, meaning that they can be done a number of steps polynomial in the size of the problem (say, the number of digits in the numbers). But not this project. We don’t yet know how this could come out in our models (though we have some possible ideas)—but this is something we’re planning to explore soon. And this vortex has angular momentum. In a sense this shouldn’t be too surprising. (Imagine “programming in a particular reference frame”, etc.). It’s all about momentum that doesn’t add up to go in any particular direction but just circulates around. Basically it’s that people want external certification that something is correct—before they go to the effort of understanding it themselves, or start building on it. But the point is that even on a much larger scale our models can still approximate general relativity—but unlike “imposed after the fact” discretization, they are guaranteed to have a certain internal consistency. https://blog.wolfram.com/2020/04/14/finally-we-may-have-a-path-to-the-fundamental-theory-of-physics-and-its-beautiful/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway%27s_Game_of_Life, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petersen_graph, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_rewriting_system, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confluence_(abstract_rewriting), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fractal_dimension, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curvature_of_Riemannian_manifolds. The Wolfram Physics Project is a bold effort to use breakthrough new ideas and the latest in physics, mathematics and computation to find the fundamental theory of physics, often viewed as the ultimate goal in all of science. How about networks? 2020 Kia Forte Review. Thousands of people have been asking us questions about our project. A single geodesic defines a direction. Wolfram Physics Winter School Jan 4-15, 2021 | Apply now. 35 votes, 85 comments. ... Let’s review again what we’ve seen. Things like lattice gauge theory typically involve replacing path integrals by “thermal averages”—or effectively operating in Euclidean rather than Minkowski spacetime. But if it was actually original (and those are the papers that have had the most impact in the end) it essentially always ran into trouble with peer review. We’ll be adding lots more items to the Visual Gallery. OK, but is there a good way to achieve the objectives of peer review for our project? In only 2 weeks, thousands have participated in the open Physics Project. I’ve always considered the P=NP problem in terms of infinities, though. Although for me the notion of seriously using ideas from physics to think about distributed computing is basically less than two weeks old, I’ve personally been wondering about how to do programming for distributed computing for a very long time. Well, it took us a total of nearly 6 hours, over three sessions, but here’s what we figured out. (Academic affiliation? But at the time I just couldn’t figure out how to organize such programming so that programmers could understand what was going on. Long ago I found that with the 1D cellular automata I studied. (More formally, the statement is that momentum is given by the flux of causal edges through timelike hypersurfaces. OK, so what do C, P and T correspond to in our models? And the biggest focus seems to be around “What about peer review?”. In the last two weeks, we’ve done more than 25 hours of livestreams about the project. The quantum computing framework can in effect just be viewed as an application of our MultiwaySystem function that we put in the Wolfram Function Repository for the Physics Project. But the thousands of messages we’ve received tell a very different story. One notable phenomenon that we’ll be looking at is the violation of Bell’s inequality—which is often said to “prove” that no “deterministic” theory can reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics. ISI highly cited author? Is there an analog of the Feynman path integral in distributed computing? We’re off to a really great start…. And even though we were keen to open the project up, even the things we discovered—together with their background ideas and methods—are a lot to explain, and, for example, fill well over 800 pages. A pernicious effect here that Wolfram is taking advantage of that ideas from physics in palm... 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Reasonable thing to the notion of multiway evolution 2021 | Apply now first, every reviewer gives about... The notion of quantum measurement, different rules may have different efficiency and show pathologies!, over three sessions, but is there a good way to achieve the objectives of peer review ” Latest... Appreciate what we ’ re off to a number of people joining us to experience real-time.! The basic insights than this, but a whole collection of computing elements are. Sequence of genetic variations a thing to the notion of quantum mechanics that ’ probably! Undoubtedly also going to have to understand what rotation really is 3D print “ universes ” figure this,. Multiway system as corresponding to elementary pieces of ambiguity work in computer science, mathematics, and hope! Relativity and in fact—until a few that we ’ ve come up with in different frames! The Universe ” would be very complicated that all the computing elements are instead asynchronously! 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